Shenzhen - Wikipedia
. Qing-era to 1940s. 1950s through 1970s. Special Economic Zone (1980s-present). Administrative divisions. Parks and beaches. Environmental protection. Relations with Hong Kong. Sister cities. Other twinnings. Additional reading.
Shenzhen (/.Sen'dZen/? /Sen’Zen/ Chinese pronunciation: Shen Zhen; Mandarin pronunciation : [[email protected]@n] Listen) is a sub-provincial capital and one of China's special economic zones. It is situated on the eastern bank of the Pearl River estuary, on the central coast in southern Guangdong. It borders Hong Kong to its south, Dongguan and Huizhou to its northeast. Shenzhen, China's third-largest city, has a population of 17.56 millions. Shenzhen has become a major global hub for technology, research and manufacturing, as well as finance and tourism. The Port of Shenzhen ranks fourth in terms of container traffic.
Shenzhen follows roughly the administrative boundaries of Bao'an County. This was established in imperial times. After the Opium Wars, the British seized the southern part of Bao'an County and made it Hong Kong. Shenzhen was located on the border. The completion of a train station, which was the last stop along the Mainland Chinese section railway between Guangzhou, Kowloon and Kowloon made Shenzhen's economy grow and eventually became a market place. Later, Shenzhen absorbed Bao'an County for the following decade.
Deng Xiaoping's economic reforms in the 1980s made the city the first special economic area of China. This was due to the city's proximity to Hong Kong. It attracted foreign direct investment as well as migrants looking for work. The city has become a major hub for finance, technology, international trade and finance over the past thirty years. The Guangdong Free-Trade Zone and Shenzhen Stock Exchange are both located in this city. They are the world's largest stock exchanges by market capitalization. Globalization and World Cities Research Network ranked Shenzhen as an Alpha- (global premier-tier) city in 2020. It is also ranked 8th for the most competitive and biggest financial centers in the world. It has the highest nominal GDP in the world, surpassing the nearby cities of Guangzhou or Hong Kong. Shenzhen has the fifth highest number of billionaires in the world, second most skyscrapers in the world, and 28th in scientific research output.  There are also several prominent educational institutions like Shenzhen University and Southern University of Science and Technology.