Moscow - Wikipedia
Early history (1147-1284). Grand Duchy (1283-1547). Tsardom (1547-1721). Soviet period (1917-1991). Recent history (1991-present). Parks and landmarks Moscow transport rings. Federal authorities. Administrative divisions. Trolleybus, electric and bus. Moscow Central Circle. Moscow Central Diameters.
Moscow (/'maskoU/ MOS-koh, US chiefly /'maskaU/ MOS-kow; Russian: Moskva, tr. Moskva (IPA: [mask’va] (listen),) is Russia's capital and largest city. It is located on the Moskva River in Central Russia. The city has a population of 12.4 million people within its limits.  There are more than 17 million residents living in the city's urban area. And there are over 20 million residents living in the metropolitan area. The city has a total area of 2,511 km (970 sq mi), while its urban area is 5,891 km (2,275 sq mi).  And the metropolitan area covers more than 26,000 kilometers (10 000 sq mi). Moscow is one of the most populous cities in the world. It has the largest metropolitan and urban area in Europe  and the largest European city by land area. 
Moscow was first documented in 1147. It grew to be a powerful and prosperous city, serving as the capital of Grand Duchy. Moscow remained the center of power and politics for the majority of the history of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which evolved into the Russian Tsardom. The Tsardom became the Russian Empire and the capital was moved to Saint Petersburg. This reduced the city's influence. After the October Revolution, the capital was moved to Moscow. The city was again made the political centre of the Russian SFSR and later the Soviet Union.  Moscow was still the capital of the newly founded Russian Federation after the collapse of the Soviet Union.