Perth - Wikipedia
Early European sightings. Swan River Colony. Convict era, gold rushes. Federation and beyond. Central business district . Metropolitan area. Geology and landforms. Immigration and ancestral history. Primary and secondary. Culture and sport. Arts and entertainment.
Perth (/pe.rth/ (listen),) is the capital of the Australian state, Western Australia (WA).  With a population of approximately 2.1 million, 80% of the state's total population living in Greater Perth by 2020, it is Australia's fourth-most populous city.  Perth is located in the South West Land Division, Western Australia. It includes most of the metropolitan region on the Swan Coastal Plain. This area lies between the Indian Ocean (and the Darling Scarp). From the original British settlements along the Swan River, the city's central commercial district and port of Fremantle have expanded. Perth is situated on the traditional Whadjuk Noongar lands, where Aboriginal Australians have been living for at least 45,000 year. 
In 1829, Captain James Stirling established Perth as the administrative center of the Swan River Colony. The name was inspired by Sir George Murray, Stirling's patron, who had strong connections to the region. Although it was granted city status in 1856 by the Perth City Council, the current administration of the area is limited to the central business district. Due to the Western Australian gold rushes of the late 19th century, the city's population grew significantly. The high net migration rate has allowed it to grow steadily since World War II. The majority of post-war immigrants came from Britain and Southern Europe. However, recent arrivals have resulted in a large number of people of Asian descent. Perth became the regional capital for large-scale mining operations after several booms in mining in Western Australia.