Mumbai - Wikipedia
Portuguese and British rule. Administration of the civic. Religions and ethnic groups.
English: /mUm’baI/ (listen), Marathi pronunciation: ['mumb@i] Mumbai, also known as Bombay (/bam’beI/-- this was the official name up until 1995), is the capital of the Indian state Maharashtra. It is also the financial center of India. According to the United Nations (UN), Mumbai was the second-most populous Indian city after Delhi, and eighth in the world with approximately 2 crore (20 million) inhabitants.  According to the 2011 Indian government census, Mumbai was the largest city in India. It had an estimated population of 1.25 million (12.5 million), and it is managed by the Brihanmumbai Metropolitan Corporation.  Mumbai, the heart of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region is home to the sixth-most populous metropolitan area in the globe with a population exceeding 2.3 million (23 million). Mumbai is located on the Konkan coast, on the west coast India. It has a deep natural harbor. Mumbai was made an alpha city in 2008 by the United Nations. It is home to the most millionaires and billionaires in India.  Mumbai has three UNESCO World Heritage Sites. These are the Elephanta Caves and Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus. They also have the distinctive collection of Victorian and Art Deco buildings built in the 19th century and 20th centuries. 
Mumbai's seven islands were once home to Marathi-language speaking Koli communities.  The seven islands that make up Bombay have been under successive Indian rulers for centuries. They were then ceded to Portugal, and later to the East India Company (1661) through the dowry given to Catherine Braganza by Charles II of England. Bombay was transformed by the Hornby Vellard Project in the middle of 18th century. This project reclaimed the area between seven islands from the ocean.  The reclamation project was completed in 1845 and transformed Bombay to a major port on the Arabian Sea. Bombay's 19th century history was marked by its economic and educational growth. It was a strong foundation for the Indian independence movement in the early 20th Century. The city was included into Bombay State upon India's 1947 independence. A new state of Maharashtra was established in 1960 with Bombay as its capital, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement.