Surabaya - Wikipedia
. Pre-colonial era. Independence era. Modern history. Urban forests and parks. Business districts. Infrastructure. Important landmarks. Military establishment. Transportation. Transport. Suramadu Bridge. Universities and post-secondary institutions .
Surabaya is the capital of the Indonesian province East Java. It is also the second-largest Indonesian city after Jakarta. It is located on the Madura Strait at the northeastern boundary of Java island. It is also one of the oldest port cities in Southeast Asia. Surabaya, along with Medan and Makassar, is one of four major central cities in Indonesia, according to the National Development Planning Agency.  Surabaya has a population totaling 2.87 million within the city limits as of the 2020 census. Surabaya's extended metropolitan area is home to 9.5 million people, making it the second largest metropolitan area in Indonesia. 
The Kingdom of Janggala settled the city in the 10th Century. It was one of two Javanese kingdoms. It was established in 1045, when Airlangga, his son, abdicated his throne to be able to enjoy the support of his two sons. Surabaya became a duchy in the 16th and 15th centuries. It was a significant political and military power, as well as an eastern Java port, most likely under the Majapahit empire. Surabaya, due to its position on the River Brantas Delta and the trade route via the Java Sea between Malacca, the Spice Islands and Malacca, was already a major trading center. The decline of Majapahit saw the lord Surabaya resist the rise of Demak Sultanate. He only accepted its rule in 1530.  Surabaya gained independence in 1546 after Sultan Trenggana died.