São Paulo - Wikipedia
Early Indigenous Period. Colonial period. The Bandeirantes. The Imperial Period. The Old Republican Period. Constitutionalist Revolution of 1932. Metropolitan area. Domestic migration. Public security. Social challenges. Sexual diversity. Twin towns - Sister cities.
Sao Paulo (/.saU.'paUloU/; Portuguese: [saw.'pawlu] (listen); Portuguese meaning 'Saint Paul'), is a city located in the Southeast Region. The GaWC has listed Sao Paulo as an alpha global City. It is also the fourth largest city in the world by population. Sao Paulo is also the most Portuguese-speaking city in the entire world. It is the capital of Sao Paulo state, which is the richest and most populous state in Brazil. It has strong international influence in commerce, finance and entertainment.  Saint Paul of Tarsus, the Apostle is the city's nickname. The Greater Sao Paulo metropolitan area is the largest in Brazil and 12th on Earth. Conurbation of metropolitan areas in the Greater Sao Paulo (Campinas Santos Jundiai Sorocaba, Sorocaba, and Campinas dos Campos) led to the creation of the Sao Paulo Macrometropolis.  This megalopolis has more than 30 millions inhabitants, making it one of the largest urban agglomerations worldwide. 
The city has the highest GDP per capita in Latin America and South America.  It is also home to the Sao Paolo Stock Exchange. Paulista Avenue is Sao Paulo's economic heart. The 11th largest global GDP is found in this city. It accounts for 10.7% of Brazil's total GDP. 36% of Brazilian production. 63% of Brazilian multinationals are located in this state. 28% of Brazil's national scientific output was achieved in 2005 by the number science papers published in journals.