Berlin - Wikipedia
12th-16th centuries. 17th to 19th century. 20th-21st centuries. Berlin-Brandenburg fusion attempt. Nationalities. Twin towns - sister communities. Conventions and tourism. Creative industries. Quality of life. Infrastructure. Water transport.
Berlin (/be/r'lIn/bur-LIN, German pronunciation: [beR’li:n]) is the capital of Germany and its largest city by area and population.  With 3.7 million residents, it is the most populous European Union city. This is based on population within city limits. Berlin, one of Germany's 16 constituent states, is located within the State of Brandenburg. It is also contiguous to Potsdam (Brandenburg's capital). Berlin's urban region, with a population of approximately 4.5 million, is second in Germany's most populous after the Ruhr.  Berlin-Brandenburg is Germany's third-largest metropolis after the Rhine-Ruhr or Rhine-Main. It has approximately 6.2 million residents.  The unsuccessful attempt to unify the two states in 1996 was unsuccessful. Today, both states work together on many issues.
Berlin is located on the banks of Spree, which flows into Spandau's Havel (a tributary to the Elbe). The city's most prominent topographical features include the numerous lakes formed by the Spree and Dahme in the western and southeast boroughs. Berlin enjoys a mild seasonal climate due to its position on the European Plain. One-third of Berlin's land area is made up of parks, gardens and rivers.  The city is located in the Central German dialect region, with the Berlin dialect being an a variation of the Lusatian/New Marchian dialects.