Melbourne - Wikipedia
Foundation and early history . Victorian gold rush. Boom and bust in land. Definitio capital of Australia and World War II. Post-war period. Contemporary Melbourne . Urban structure. Immigration and ancestral history. Infrastructure. Additional reading. External links.
Melbourne (/[email protected]/ [listen] [email protected]] (Boonwurrung, Naarm) is the capital of Australia's state of Victoria and the second-most populous in Oceania and Australia. Its name refers to the metropolitan area of Greater Melbourne (of 9,993 km2 or 3,858 sq mi), which is an urban agglomeration of 31 municipalities.  However, the name is also used for the City of Melbourne located in its central business district. It occupies a large portion of Port Phillip Bay's eastern and northern coastlines. It also extends into the Mornington Peninsula, the hinterlands to the Yarra Valley, Dandenong and Macedon Ranges. The city has more than 5 million residents (19% of Australia's population, according to 2020). Most of them live east of the city center. They are often called \"Melburnians\". [note 2]
Since over 40,000 years, the Melbourne area has been home of Aboriginal peoples. It also serves as a meeting point for Kulin Nation clans.  Naarm, the Boon Wurrung traditional name for Port Phillip Bay, is the most common name used by the wider Aboriginal community to refer the city.  Although a temporary penal settlement was established at Port Phillip in 1803, it was abandoned when the British colony of New South Wales was formed. Melbourne was only founded in 1835 with the arrival of free settlers, who came from Van Diemen's Land (modern day Tasmania). It was established as a Crown settlement on 17 April 1837. The name of the colony is William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, who was then British Prime Minister.  Melbourne was made the capital of the new colony in Victoria in 1851, four-years after Queen Victoria had declared it a city.  The city experienced a long boom period during the Victorian gold rush of 1850s. It was transformed into one the most wealthy and largest cities in the world by the end 1880s.  It was the temporary capital of Australia until Canberra became the permanent capital of the nation in 1927. It is today a major financial centre in Asia-Pacific and ranks 23rd worldwide in the Global Financial Centres Index 2021.