Sydney - Wikipedia
. Establishment of the colony. Modern development. 20th century-present. . Eastern suburbs. Southern Sydney. Northern Sydney . Hills district. Western suburbs. Urban structure. Urban structure.
Sydney (/’sIdni/ [listen] SID-nee: Dharug; Gadi Greater Sydney Dharug; Eora]) is the capital of the state New South Wales and the largest city in Australia and Oceania. The metropolis is located on Australia's east coastline and surrounds Port Jackson. It extends approximately 70 km (43.5 miles) along its perimeter towards the Blue Mountains, Hawkesbury, Macarthur, and the Royal National Park.  Sydney is comprised of 658 suburbs spread over 33 local government areas. The city's residents are called \"Sydneysiders\".  Sydney's metropolitan population was 5,361,466, which means that the city houses approximately 66% the state's total population. The city's nicknames include the \"Emerald City\" and the \"Harbour City\". 
Indigenous Australians have lived in the Greater Sydney area for over 30,000 years. Aboriginal engravings are still found in the region. Lieutenant James Cook and his crew were the first Europeans, in 1770, to chart Australia's eastern coast. They made landfall at Botany bay. The First Fleet of convicts led by Arthur Phillip established Sydney in 1788 as a British penal colony. This was the first European settlement in Australia. It experienced mass migration after World War II and was one of the most multicultural places in the world.  Additionally, 45.4% reported that they were born abroad, making it the fourth-largest city with foreign-born residents after New York City and London.