Singapore - Wikipedia
British colonization. Republic of Singapore. Politics and government. Sport and recreation.
Coordinates: 1deg17'N 103deg50'E / 1.283degN 103.833degE / 1.283; 103.833.
Singapore (/'sING(g]@po:r/ (listen),) is a sovereign, island-country and city-state in the maritime Southeast Asia. It is located at one degree of latitude (137 kms, 85 miles) north of equator. It borders the Strait of Malacca, the Singapore Strait, the South China Sea, and the Straits of Johor. The country's territory consists of one main island, 63 satellite islets and islands, and one islet outlying. Their combined area has grown by 25% since independence. This is due to extensive land reclamation. It is home to the third highest density of people in the world. Recognising the importance of respecting cultural identities of major ethnic groups, Singapore has four official languages: English, Malay and Mandarin. English is the official language and many public services can only be accessed in English. The constitution enshrines multiracialism and continues to influence national policies in education and housing.
Singapore's history goes back at least a millennium. It was a maritime colony known as Temasek, and later became a key component of many thalassocratic empires. The modern era of Singapore began in 1819, when Stamford Raffles established Singapore to be an entrepot trading point for the British Empire. The colonies of Southeast Asia were reorganized and Singapore was placed under direct British control as part of the Straits Settlements. After Japan's surrender in 1945, Singapore was captured by Japan during the Second World War. It was then re-established as a British Crown Colony. In 1959, Singapore was granted self-government and, in 1963, it joined the new Federation of Malaysia. Two years later, Singapore was expelled from the Federation due to ideological differences. This included the perception of Lee Kuan Yew's egalitarian \"Malaysian Malaysia\", political ideology. It was perceived as encroaching on the other Malaysian constituent entities. The policies of Ketuanan Melayu and the bumiputera. In 1965, Singapore became an independent sovereign nation.