Riyadh - Wikipedia
Historical beginnings. First Saudi State. Modern history . Districts in cities. Architecture and landmarks. Old Riyadh's vernacular architecture . Archeological sites. Turaif district. Masmak Fortress. Contemporary architecture. Kingdom Centre. Burj Rafal Hotel Kempinski.
Riyadh (Arabic: lryD, romanized: 'ar-Riyad, lit. Riyadh (Arabic: lryD, romanized: 'ar-Riyad') Najdi pronunciation. Previously known as Hajr it is the capital of Saudi Arabia. It is also one of the most populous cities on the Arabian Peninsula. The city is located in the middle of the an-Nafud Desert, in the eastern part the Najd plateau. It sits at an average 600m (2,000 ft above sea level) and attracts approximately 5 million tourists annually. This makes it the forty-ninth-most visited city in the world, and the 6th in Middle East. In 2019, Riyadh was home to 7.6 million people, making it the largest city in Saudi Arabia and the 3rd most populous Middle East city. It is also the 38th most populous Asian city. 
In 1590, an Arab chronicler first mentioned the city under the name Riyadh. Deham Ibn Dawwas was a Manfuha native who settled in the city and took over control. Deham constructed a wall around the city. The best-known source for the name Riyadh comes from this period. It is thought that it refers to earlier oasis towns, which predated the Ibn Dawwas wall.  Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, an associate of the Emir in Dir'iyah Muhammad bin Saud formed an alliance and took Riyadh away from Deham in 1774. Their state, now called the First Saudi State, collapsed in 1818. In the early 19th-century, Turki ibn Abullah established the Second Saudi State and made Riyadh their capital. His reign was interrupted by the Ottoman-Rashidi joint alliance. In the early 20th Century, 'Abdulaziz ibn Saud - known to the west as Ibn Saud - seized his ancestral kingdom of Najd and consolidated his control by 1926 with his final conquest of Hejaz.  He then named his kingdom Saudi Arabia in September 1932 and Riyadh the capital.