Basra - Wikipedia
Rashidun Caliphate (632-661). Infrastructure. Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750). Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258),. Mongol rule, and subsequent (1258-). Portuguese empire. British and Ottoman rule. Monarchy to Saddam era (1932-192003). Post-Saddam period (2003-present).
Basra is an Iraqi city on the Shatt al-Arab. In 2018, it was home to an estimated 1.4 million people. It is Iraq's largest port. However, Basra does not have deep-water access. This is handled at Umm Qasr.
It is the port from which Sinbad the Sailor traveled. Built in 636, the city has been a key part of Islamic Golden Age. Basra is a consistently hot city in Iraq. The summer temperatures often exceed 50 degrees Celsius (122 degrees F). Basra was recognized by the Iraqi Parliament as Iraq's economic capital in April 2017. 
Basrah is the most popular name for the city throughout its history. Basrah, which means \"the watcher\" in Arabic, may be a reference to the city's history as an Arab military base against Sassanids. Others argue that the name derives from basratha in Aramaic, which means \"place of huts, settlement\". \"
It was established in the Islamic era, 636. It began as a garrison for Arab tribesmen who were part of the Rashidun Caliph Umar's armies. The original military site, located a few kilometers from the current city, can still be seen at a tell. Utbah ibn Ghazwan, a Muslim commander, built his camp on the site where an ancient Persian military settlement, Vahestabad Ardasir was destroyed by Arabs. Its role as a military base against Sassanid Empire gave it the name Al-Basrah. Other sources suggest that the name is derived from the Persian word Basrah or Bassorah, which means \"where many paths come together\". \"